Characterization of Third Generation High-Reliability Pb-Free Alloys

Statement of Work


From 2008 to 2015, iNEMI’s Pb-Free Alloy Alternatives Project planned and executed test programs to close knowledge gaps related to thermal fatigue performance of Sn-based Pb free solder alloys. Most of the alloys studied in the Alloy Alternatives Project had near-eutectic SAC compositions. In 2016, a new phase of the project was launched to characterize and understand the thermal fatigue performance of the emerging high-performance Pb-free solder alloys. This new phase uses the thermal cycling practices and test vehicles developed for the original iNEMI Alloy study to generate data for high-performance solder alloys. 

The High-Performance Alloy Alternatives project team was created by a formal collaboration between iNEMI and another major industrial consortium, the HDP User Group, and includes participation from two other consortia — CALCE (Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering) and AREA (Universal’s Advanced Research in Electronic Assembly). These consortia collectively are supported by members from high-reliability telecom, electronics manufacturing, IC device suppliers, automotive, avionics, military/defense end users, solder suppliers, and electronic contract manufacturers.  

The active core project team is formed by 12 iNEMI members and 8 HDP members, with 6 members common to both consortia. The project also receives relevant resource contributions from several other companies, universities, and independent industry consultants. Since its inception, the project has contributed 23 published papers to the open literature and 4 public webinars on the project and its progress. 

Latest update


A Collaborative Consortia Project to Assess the Effect of Thermal Cycling Dwell Time on the Reliability of High-Performance Solder Alloys,” Richard Coyle,PhD, Nokia Bell Labs, SMTA International 2023, Session IRR1: Programs Addressing High Reliability and Mission Critical Applications/Interconnect Research and Reliability (IRR), October 10, 2023; Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Originally published in the proceedings of the SMTA International, October 9 - October 12, 2023)  NOTE: This paper won the "Best in Proceedings" award for the conference.

“Thermal Fatigue Reliability of 1206 Thermal Fatigue Reliability of a 1206 Chip Resistor with High-Performance Pb-Free Solder Alloys,” presented by Timothy Pearson, Collins Aerospace paper presentation
This paper was originally published in the Proceedings of the SMTA International, October 31-November 3, 2022, and received a received a "Best of Proceedings" award from SMTA.

Enhancing Thermal Fatigue Reliability of Pb-Free Solder Alloys with Additions of Bismuth and Antimony, presented by Richard Coyle, Ph.D. (Nokia Bell Labs), originally published in the Proceedings of SMTA International, September 28 - October 23, 2020.

"Thermal Cycling Reliability and Failure Mode of Two Ball Grid Array Packages with High Reliability Pb-Free Solder Alloys", presented by Richard Coyle (Nokia Bell Labs), SMTA International, September 26, 2019; Rosemont, Illinois. 


Alloy Composition and Thermal Fatigue of High Reliability Pb-Free Solder Alloys; presented by Richard Coyle (Nokia Bell Labs), SMTA International, October 18, 2018 (Rosemont, Illinois) NOTE: this presentation was recognized as Best of Proceedings by SMTA.

The Effect of Bismuth, Antimony, or Indi
 um on the Thermal Fatigue of High Reliability Pb-Free Solder Alloys; presented by Richard Coyle (Nokia Bell Labs), SMTA International, October 18, 2018 (Rosemont, Illinois)

 iNEMI Pb-Free Alloy Characterization Papers at SMTA International 2012 (as originally published in the 2012 SMTA International Conference Proceedings).