|This chapter assesses several ceramic interconnect technologies, such as thick film, high and low-temperature co-fired, thin film, pure copper metallization on ceramic, and lead-free thick film. It discusses the status of technologies and identifies trends, future directions, paradigm shifts and key infrastructure issues. Innovative ceramic interconnection substrate technology is a key enabling technology for mobile device applications, future networks (e.g., 5G), and IoT devices and applications. Ceramic substrates offer toolsets that will empower adopters to realize a competitive advantage through increased functionality, 3D integration, and portability demanded by future electronic systems packaging requirements.
Additionally, the materials, processes and supply chain that are well-developed for ceramic interconnect continue to enable dynamic growth in the photovoltaic industry. This chapter also includes a section that summarizes crystalline silicon solar cell design, fabrication, and testing.